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    Essentials – Forensic Science DNA Evidence

    DNA Typing / FingerprintingDNA profiling, often referred to as genetic fingerprinting, is used in forensic science to identify individuals by characteristics of their DNA.
    Collection and PreservationEvidence collection should be performed by trained professionals following stringent guidelines to ensure the integrity of the evidence. Proper packaging, marking, sealing, and documentation are key aspects.
    ExtractionDNA extraction is the process of obtaining pure DNA from a sample, either from bodily substances like saliva, blood, semen, hair follicles etc.
    Amplification (PCR)In order the make enough DNA for forensic analysis, Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is used to amplify the small amount of DNA present in forensic samples.
    STR AnalysisShort Tandem Repeat (STR) analysis is a molecular genetics method that is used for comparing specific loci on DNA from two or more samples.
    Mitochondrial DNA AnalysisThis is used when evidence has very little nuclear DNA, but may have a lot of mtDNA. This method has been helpful in solving crimes when samples are old or degraded.
    Y-STR AnalysisAnalyzing short tandem repeats on the Y-chromosome can help in tracing family relationships among males.
    DNA DatabaseDNA databases can help match evidence to potential suspects, confirm suspects’ alibis, confirm or disprove theories, connect crimes together and predict a suspect’s looks.
    Ethical & Legal ConsiderationsDNA evidence has potential privacy concerns, and its use and storage is subject to legal regulations regarding consent, testing, and the use of test results.