|DNA Typing / Fingerprinting
|DNA profiling, often referred to as genetic fingerprinting, is used in forensic science to identify individuals by characteristics of their DNA.
|Collection and Preservation
|Evidence collection should be performed by trained professionals following stringent guidelines to ensure the integrity of the evidence. Proper packaging, marking, sealing, and documentation are key aspects.
|DNA extraction is the process of obtaining pure DNA from a sample, either from bodily substances like saliva, blood, semen, hair follicles etc.
|In order the make enough DNA for forensic analysis, Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is used to amplify the small amount of DNA present in forensic samples.
|Short Tandem Repeat (STR) analysis is a molecular genetics method that is used for comparing specific loci on DNA from two or more samples.
|Mitochondrial DNA Analysis
|This is used when evidence has very little nuclear DNA, but may have a lot of mtDNA. This method has been helpful in solving crimes when samples are old or degraded.
|Analyzing short tandem repeats on the Y-chromosome can help in tracing family relationships among males.
|DNA databases can help match evidence to potential suspects, confirm suspects’ alibis, confirm or disprove theories, connect crimes together and predict a suspect’s looks.
|Ethical & Legal Considerations
|DNA evidence has potential privacy concerns, and its use and storage is subject to legal regulations regarding consent, testing, and the use of test results.