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    Microsoft Windows

    1. Windows 1.0 (November 20, 1985): The first version of Microsoft Windows, it was a 16-bit graphical operating system initially named “Interface Manager”. Key differentiating feature was its Graphical User Interface (GUI) which was a significant shift from the previous command-line MS-DOS system.
    2. Windows 2.0/ 2.1x (December 9, 1987 and May 27, 1988 respectively): Introduced more sophisticated GUI improvements, overlapping windows and VGA graphics. It was the first Windows version that could run Microsoft Word and Excel.
    3. Windows 3.0/ 3.1x ( May 22, 1990 and April 6, 1992 respectively): These versions introduced improved memory management, better performance, and significantly enhanced GUI. Windows 3.0 was the first to see extensive popularity and success.
    4. Windows NT 3.1 (July 27, 1993): A new, completely 32-bit version, was intended for professional applications and advanced users. It was much more stable than the DOS-based Windows and had better memory management.
    5. Windows 95 (August 24, 1995): A monumental leap forward in Windows’ history introducing a completely redesigned GUI with a Start button, taskbar, and built-in Internet support with Internet Explorer.
    6. Windows 98 (June 25, 1998): An upgrade to Windows 95, it provided better USB support and a few other enhancements like the Quick Launch toolbar. Windows 98 SE (Second Edition) added Internet Connection Sharing and Internet Explorer 5.
    7. Windows 2000 (February 17, 2000): Aimed at the professional market, it had improved networking, security features, and support for many peripheral devices. It was more stable than the previous Windows 98.
    8. Windows ME (Millennium Edition, September 14, 2000): The last Windows in the Win9x series, it was targeted at home users and removed “real mode” DOS support but was often criticized for stability issues.
    9. Windows XP (October 25, 2001): Combining the strengths of both Windows 2000 and the Windows 9x series, this robust, user-friendly and greatly popular version helped cement Windows’ dominance in the operating system arena.
    10. Windows Vista (January 30, 2007): Delivered a new graphical user interface named Aero, enhanced security and networking support but had a high system requirement and was criticized for poor performance on older hardware.
    11. Windows 7 (October 22, 2009): A well-received upgrade from Vista, it presented features like improved taskbar, touch, speech, and handwriting recognition, virtual hard disk support, and performance improvements.
    12. Windows 8 (October 26, 2012): Introduced a touch-optimized Windows shell based on Microsoft’s “Metro” design language which was a drastic departure from previous versions, causing mix receptions.
    13. Windows 8.1 (October 17, 2013): A free update to Windows 8 addressed some of the UI issues, introducing more familiar elements like a Start Button, along with security enhancements.
    14. Windows 10 (July 29, 2015): Merged the touch capabilities of Windows 8 with the familiarity of previous versions. It introduced a universal application architecture, Cortana, Microsoft Edge, and promised continuous updates instead of entirely new versions.