|Birds navigate by sensing the Earth’s magnetic fields. This is how they embark on long migratory journeys.
|Marine animals such as salmon use changes in water salinity (salt concentration) to navigate their way back to their birthplaces for spawning.
|Bees and other insects use the sun as a reference point for directionality. They internalize the sun’s pattern of movement to find their way.
|Mammals like wolves or deer use recognizable terrain features and smells as landmarks to navigate.
|Bats emit sounds and use the time it takes for the sound to return to determine their position relative to objects.
|Sea turtles use a geomagnetic map, where they imprint on the magnetic field of their natal beach, and use this information to return there to lay eggs.
|Pigeons use a combination of visual mapping (landmarks), the sun’s movements, and sensing Earth’s magnetic fields to navigate.
|Path Integration/Dead Reckoning
|Ants use the method of path integration, where they consistently update their position relative to a starting point (e.g. their nest) to navigate.
|Many spiders sense vibrations and use that information to navigate their local environments.