|Primitive (stone age)
|This period was characterized by foraging and hunting. Early humans learned about edible plants and started gathering grains.
|Humans started to shift from being nomads to settling and farming. This marked the start of the agriculture era.
|Irrigation systems were developed. Crops like barley, wheat, and maize were domesticated for cultivation.
|Ancient empires (Romans, Greeks)
|There were improvements in irrigation, the plough and related tools; agriculture was seen more as a science.
|More lands were prepared for cultivation due to the development of the heavy plough and horse-collar.
|More advanced farming techniques (e.g., three-field system), improved livestock, and new crops were introduced.
|The advent of machinery dramatically increased agricultural productivity. Also, fertilizers and pesticides came into usage.
|Mechanization, biochemistry and genetic modification shaped agriculture. Practices such as soil conservation came into focus.
|Modern Era (21st century)
|Precision and digital agriculture emerged, shaped by technology such as drones, satellites, robotics, and AI.