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    Timelines – Collapse of civilizations

    CivilizationInceptionNotable AchievementsCollapseNotes
    Sumerianc. 4500 BCInvented writing, developed city-statesc. 1750 BCSuffered from repeated invasions and internal strife
    Egyptianc. 3100 BCConstructed the Pyramids, made significant scientific advancementsc. 30 BCFell to the Roman Empire, internal decay
    Indus Valleyc. 3300 BCDeveloped urban planning and sanitation systemsc. 1300 BCPossible climate change, Aryan invasions
    Mayanc. 2000 BCDeveloped a complex calendar and writing system, accomplished astronomersc. 900 ADOverpopulation, environmental degradation, warfare
    Romanc. 753 BCEstablished representative government, extensive art and architecturec. 476 ADEconomic troubles, Barbarian invasions, moral decay
    Byzantinec. 330 ADPreserved Greek and Roman texts, Justinian Codec. 1453 ADFell to Ottoman Turks, internal decay
    Ottomanc. 1299 ADRevision of legal and political structure, architectural innovationsc. 1922 ADLost WWI, internal revolts, reformations in society