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The Advent of Fire (Approximately 1.9 Million Years Ago)
The controlled use of fire by Homo ergaster, one of the earliest human species, marks one of the first fundamental milestones in societal evolution. Fire provided warmth, protection from predators, and a method to cook food, increasing the variety of diet and decreasing the time spent on chewing, potentially aiding brain development.
The Invention of Tools (Approximately 2.6 Million Years Ago)
The significant leap in technology came with the invention of stone tools by Homo habilis. These tools provided a means to more effectively gather food and altered the way early humans interacted with their environment.
The Dawn of Agriculture (Around 10,000 BCE)
The shift from nomadic life to a settled agricultural society, also known as the Neolithic Revolution, allowed the formation of early human settlements. Agriculture facilitated the ability to produce surplus food, thereby fuelling population growth and enabling societal specialization.
The Rise of Civilizations (Around 3300–1300 BCE)
The formation of complex city-states in Mesopotamia, Ancient Egypt, the Indus Valley Civilisation and China marked the birth of ‘civilization’. This period witnessed dramatic strides in writing systems, architectural practices, and legal codes.
Classical Antiquity (8th Century BCE– 6th Century CE)
The emergence of Greek, Roman, and other classical societies brought forth advanced governmental systems and cultural advancements, including democracy, philosophy, and significant strides in arts and sciences.
The Middle Ages (5th–15th Century CE)
The fall of the Western Roman Empire marked the beginning of the Middle Ages, characterized by a feudal system, the spread of Christianity and Islam, and key events such as the Crusades.
Renaissance & the Age of Enlightenment (14th –18th Century)
These eras were characterized by an explosion of learning, discovery, and thought. Strong emphasis on humanism, science, exploration, and invention led to significant changes in societal thought, while revolutionary ideas concerning governance and human rights emerged.
Industrial Revolution (1760–1840)
This period marked a significant shift from agrarian societies to industrialized ones, which was accompanied by technological advancements, population explosion, urbanization, and drastic changes in living conditions.
Digital Revolution (1947-Present)
The invention of the transistor, heralding the Digital Age, transformed societies and economies globally. Notable highlights include the advent of computers, the internet, smartphones, and a shift toward information-based economies.